Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

Calì, Massimiliano ; Menon, Carlo

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Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas. The results obtained through an instrumental variable estimation suggest that this effect is causal in nature and is largely attributable to the positive spillovers of urbanization on the rural economy rather than to the movement of the rural poor to urban areas. This rural poverty-reducing effect of urbanization is primarily explained by increased demand for local agricultural products and, to a lesser extent, by urban-rural remittances, the rural land/population ratio, and rural nonfarm employment.

Document type: Working paper
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Date: 2013
Version: Secondary publication
Date Deposited: 19 June 2015
Number of Pages: 56
Faculties / Institutes: Miscellaneous > Individual person
DDC-classification: "Social services; association"
Controlled Subjects: Indien, Ländlicher Raum, Verstädterung, Armutsbekämpfung
Uncontrolled Keywords: Indien, Ländlicher Raum, Urbanisierung, Armut / India, Rural Area, Urbanization, Poverty
Subject (classification): Sociology
Countries/Regions: India
Additional Information: © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 Unported